Adesina, O. S. (2017). Foreign policy in an era of digital diplomacy, Cogent Social Sciences, 3(1), 1-13.
Ahmadipoor, Z.; Ghorchi. M., & Ghaderi Hojjat. M. (2012). Explain the position of urban diplomacy in developing geopolitical influence, Journal of Geography and Urban Space Development, 1, 158-182. (In Persian)
Al-Muftah, H.; Weerakkody, V.; Rana, N. P.; Sivarajah, U., & Irani, Z. (2018). Factors influencing e-diplomacy implementation: Exploringcausal relationships using interpretive structural modelling", Government Information Quarterly, Xxx (xxxx) xxx–xxx, (Article in Press)
Azkia, M., & Ghaffari, Gh. (2001). Examining the relations between Social Cohesion and Organized Participation of rural people in the Kashan’s villages, Agricultural Economics, 9 (36), 175-205. (in Persian)
Bojmehrani, H., & Pour Islami, M. (2014). Soft Threats of the Autonomy of Iraqi Kurdistan and Their Impacts on Iranian Kurds, Political Sociology of Islamic World, 2(1), 87-110. (in Persian)
Broker, L. (2005). Any hope for Kurdish state? The United States, Germany prospect of Kurdish self-determination, Heinrich boll sifting. Available from: https://www.boell.de/sites/default/.pdf.
Cagaptay, S. (2011). Arab Spring heats up Kurdish issue, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Available from: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/arab-spring-heats-up-kurdish-issue.
Chatterji, R., & Saha, S. (2017). Para-diplomacy: Concept and the Context, India Quarterly, 73(4), 375-394.
Dehshiri, M.R. (2013). Paradiplomay at the age of Globalization: case study of City-diplomacy, Strategic Studies of Public Policy Journal, 4(13), 34-54. (in Persian)
Entessar, N. (2014). Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Kurdish Dilemma in Iran, in Romano, D. & Gurses, M. Conflict, Democratization, and the Kurds in the Middle East, NewYork: Palgrave Macmillan.
Goodarzi, M., & Kaffash nayyeri, M. (2016). Globalization and City Diplomacy: The Formation of Global Citizen (Possibility or Impossibility), International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 3(1), 471-478.
Gunter, M. M. (2013). The contemporary roots of Kurdish nationalism in Iran, Kufa Review, 2(1), 29-48.
Jude, J. (2017). Contesting borders? The formation of Iraqi Kurdistan’s de facto state, International Affairs, 93(4), 847–863.
Kaminski, B., & Mitra, S. (2012). Borderless Bazaars and Regional Integration in Central Asia: Emerging patterns of trade and cross-border cooperation. The World Bank.
Katzman, K. (2010). The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq, Congressional Research Service, 10-12.
Keskin, T. (2015). The Impact of the Arab Uprisings on the Kurds, In Karakoç J. (Ed.). Authoritarianism in the Middle East, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Khaleghinejad, M. (2016). Paradiplomacy place in Foreign Policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran vs. Iraq (Case Study of Kermanshah Province). Master's Thesis, Ayatollah Ozma Borujerdi University. (in Persian)
Khali Mohammed, H., & Owtram, F. (2014). Paradiplomacy of Regional Governments in International Relations: The Foreign Relations of the Kurdistan Regional Government (2003 – 2010), Iran and the Caucasus, 18, 65-84.
Kooistra, M. (2017). Paradiplomacy in Practice: The Development of Paradiplomacy in Quebec, Scotland, and California, M. A. thesis, Leiden: Leiden university.
Kuznetsov, S. A. (2015). Theory and Practice of Paradiplomacy: Subnational governments in international affairs, New York: Routledge.
Lachapelle, G., & Paquin, S. (2005). Mastering Globalization: New Subnational Governance and Strategies. New York: Routledge.
Laoutides, C. (2016). How Foreign Is the Kurdish Issue in Iran’s Foreign Policy? in Akbarzadeh, Sh. & Conduit, Dara, Iran in the World: President Rouhani’s Foreign Policy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lecours, A. (2008). Political Issues of Para diplomacy: Lessons from the Developed World. Netherlands Institute of International Relations. Available from:
Little, D. (2010). The United States and the Kurds, a Cold War Story, Journal of Cold War Studies, 12(4), 63–98.
Manyuan, D. (2017). The Kurdish Issue in the Middle East Context. Available from: http://www.ciis.org.cn/english/2017-09/28/ content.
Mehr news Agency (2018). The labor market of the provinces, according to the statistics quarterly, the unemployed province of the country. Available from:
Mojtahedi. M. (1998). Diplomacy and its historical transformation, Journal of Persian Language and Literature, 41(169), 103-128.
Momeni, M. R.; Rahimi, A., & Gheibizadeh, N. (2016), Para diplomacy and its utilities in the border cities: Case study of West Azerbaijan Province, Studies of International Relations Journal, 1(21), 53-78. (in Persian)
Nader, A.; Hanauer, L.; Allen, B., & Scotten, G. A. (2016). Regional implication of an independent Kurdistan. RAND Corporation.
Nasri, Q., & Rezai, D. (2014). Feasibility Study of Independence of Iraq’s Kurds and its Impacts on Iran’s Security, Amniat Pajouhi Quarterly, 12(44), 29-56. (in Persian)
NejatiHosseini. M. (2011). Urban Politics and Urban Diplomacy: From Theory to Experience, Journal of Historical Sociology, 3(2), 117-142. (in Persian)
Nganje, F. (2016). Sub-state diplomacy and the foreign policy-development nexus in South Africa, South African Journal of International Affairs, 23(1), 1–20.
Olson, R. (1991). Five Stages of Kurdish Nationalism: 1880–1980, Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs Journal, 12(2), 391-409.
Olson, R. (1992). The Kurdish question in the aftermath of the Gulf War: Geopolitical and geostrategic changes in the Middle East, Third World Quarterly, (132), 475-499.
Pashang, A., & Zommorodi, Z. (2014). Examining Iraq’s Political Upheavals in the Shadow of Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia’s Foreign Policy, Foreign Policy Quarterly, 28(3), 477-499. (in Persian)
Pietrasiak, M.; Bywalec. G.; Kaminski, T.; Meirzejewski, D., & Slowikowski.M, (2018). Paradiplomacy in Asia: case studies of China, India and Russia". Lodz University Press.
Poorhasan, N., & Khaleghinejad, M. (2017). Para diplomacy. Tehran: Sokhanvaran publisher. (in Persian)
Poorhasan, N., & Khaleghinejad, M. (2016). The Role of Para diplomacy in Resistance Economy. International conference on Management, Accounting, Educational Sciences and Resistance Economics; Action and Practice, Sari, Iran. (in Persian)
Posch, W. (2017). Iranian Kurds: Fellow Aryans and Muslim Brothers, In Stansfield, G. & Shareef M. The Kurdish Question Revisited, London: Hurst Publishers.
Posch, W. (2015). The Iranian Kurds under Islamist rule – a short overview. Available from: https://www.academia.edu.
Rezazadeh, H., & Dalili, Sh. (2015). Para Diplomacy Strategies to Exit the Dispute of the Nuclear Case of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Politics Quarterly, 2(5), 41-54. (in Persian)
Riamei, L. (2015). The Kurdish Question: Identity, Representation and the Struggle for Self- Determination: Identity, Representation and the Struggle for Self- Determination. Delhi: KW Publishers Pvt Ltd.
Romano, D., & Gurses, M. (2014). Conflict Democratization, and the Kurds in the Middle East: Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. Springer.
Sainz de Vicuňa, R. (2015). Catalan Paradiplomacy, Secessionism and State Sovereignty, the Effects of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy and the Artur Mas Government on Catalan Paradiplomacy. M.A thesis, Faculty of social and behavioral Sciences, Leiden University.
Sergunin, A., & Joenniemi, P. (2014). Paradiplomacy as a Sustainable Development Strategy: The Case of Russia’s Arctic Subnational Actors, Eurasia Border Review, 5(2), 1-17.
Sinkaya, B. (2017). The Kurdish question in Iran and its effects on Iran-Turkey relations, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, DOI: 10.1080/13530194.2017.1361315, 1-20.
Tabnak news Agency. (2017). which provinces in Iran, 60% of its people are unemployed? Available from:
Tavares, R. (2014). Foreign Policy Goes Local. Foreign affairs, Available from: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/south-america/2013-10-09.
Tohid Fahm, M., & Delili, Sh. (2016). Globalization of urbans and golibalization of diplomacy (case study: urban diplomacy), Politics Quarterly, 46(2), 303-321. (in Persian)
Valadbigi, A., & Ghobadi, S. (2011). Federalism and perspectives of democracy, International Journal of Sustainable Development, 2(6) 37-44.
Vali, A. (1995). The making of Kurdish identity in Iran, Journal for Critical Studies of the Middle East, 4(7), 1-22.
Zepada, R. M. (2017). Paradiplomacy in North America: Canadian Provinces’Relations with Their US and Mexican Counterparts, Norteamerica, 12(2), 87-109.
Zolfaali Pham, H., & Sadaati, M. (2015). Case Study of Urban Diplomacy in the Paradiplomacy Process in Globalization Age. National Conference on Applied Research in Educational Sciences and Psychology and Social Violations of Iran, Tehran.